Extracellular Vesicles (Exosomes): The Next Generation of Biologic Medicine* - Full Course
Extracellular vesicles (exosomes) are tiny, subcellular, membrane-bound vesicles that are released by a wide variety of cell types and cancer cells and that can carry membrane and cellular proteins, as well as DNA, microRNA (miRNA), and various other types of RNA, including mRNA fragments, representative of the cell of origin. This course explores the evidence-based science behind extracellular vesicles (exosomes) and their use in a variety of areas in clinical Age Management Medicine such as biomarkers, ways of treating disease, and use as targeted delivery vehicles for therapeutic molecules. These recorded lectures were previously accredited live presentations at AMMG events.
Our bodies retain a robust ability to repair and regenerate throughout the entire course of our lives. Each and every day our bodies lose millions of cells, which must be constantly replenished from pools of stem cells lest we rapidly expire. Aging, chronic pain and chronic injury result from a progressive increase in the demand for stem cells while we experience a concurrent decline in stem cell availability and function. The symptoms of aging and the causes of pain can be treated with modern therapies derived from younger, allogeneic sources. Umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells and MSC-derived exosomes are a potent source of regenerative proteins and RNAs. They can be administered therapeutically in an off-the-shelf manner due to their immune privileged state and used effectively as a flowable allograft without pathological rejection. As we continue to develop these new perinatal products it is important to understand the foundational biology of these cells in order to innovate and utilize their potential in the safest and most effective ways.
Exosomes are small membranous entities of endocytic origin. Their production by a wide variety of cells in eukaryotes implicates their roles in the execution of essential processes, especially cellular communication. Exosomes are secreted under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and their actions on neighboring and distant cells lead to the modulations of cellular behaviors. The characterization of exosomes, provides information on aberrant processes, and thus, exosome analysis has many clinical applications. Because they are associated with the transport of different cellular entities across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), exosomes might be useful for delivering drugs and other therapeutic molecules to brain. We will look at exosomes in the literature and review the roles exosomes play in different neurodegenerative diseases.
Lecture begins with a detailed review of the current literature regarding exosomes and the Cardiovascular system. The therapeutic and diagnostic role of exosomes in cardiovascular diseases will be discussed. This will include how exosomes and exosomal miRNAs are involved in cardiovascular protection and repair. Review of the bioactive molecules in exosomes and the various forms of miRNA and their roles in CVD. Exosomes and atherosclerosis, heart failure, cardiac regeneration, cardiomyopathy, their roles as functional CVD biomarkers and in gene therapy. Potential application of exosomes in drug delivery. Understanding the Paracrine Effects Exerted by Exosomes Secreted from Cardiac Cells in Cardiovascular Disease. The potential challenges and future perspectives in the use of exosomes for clinical cardiac applications. Combination therapies using exosomes and peptides in various cardiovascular conditions such as acute coronary syndromes, chronic coronary artery disease, hypertensive cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure will also be reviewed.
This presentation will include sequential PET brain imaging on a 22-year-old male who lost his ability to speak at age two following a vaccination. He was diagnosed with Autism. He had not been able to speak for 20 years when I began treating him; he is now able to speak somewhat and is starting speech therapy. The sequential PET scans will demonstrate a great visual of the reduction of brain infection. The PET gives a computerized calculation via numerical values that validate the increased brain activity in specific brain regions. Most of the time, the same multiple factors are the causation of both premature dementia and Autistic Spectrum disorders.
Recent discoveries have newly revealed that almost all types of cells produce extracellular vehicles (EVs) to communicate with each other. One type of EV, exosomes, transport cargo that regulates cell processes such as the production of protein. The cargo may differ based on the cell of origin, but can include molecules such as messenger RNA, microRNA, membrane proteins, etc. Scientific excitement is rapidly increasing over the promising ability application of exosomes for diagnostic, therapeutic, and regenerative purposes. This presentation will explain exosomes, identify the areas of greatest potential use, and explain how exosomes can facilitate healing and boost cancer immunity following Focal Laser Ablation (FLA) for the treatment of prostate cancer.
The Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) is the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered with the National Institutes of Health – www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867. SCOTS is Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved and utilizes autologous bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. SCOTS is an open label, non-randomized, efficacy study. There is no placebo or sham arm. All patients meeting eligibility criteria and enrolled in the study receive active treatment. Bone Marrow aspirated from the posterior Iliac Crest is separated to provide Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells (BMSC) within the stem cell concentrate. The treatment protocols in SCOTS have been continued in the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study II (SCOTS 2) also IRB approved and registered with NIH Identifier NCT 03011541.
The American Cancer Society predicts that the global burden of cancer will be 26.1 million new cancer cases per year and 13 million annual deaths by 2030, up from and 13.2 million cases and 8.2 million deaths in 2013. Unfortunately there is no early detection test for cancer. In the past decade there has been an explosion on the research of exosomes and cancer. Exosomes have a role in cancer in regards to promotion of tumor growth, tumorigenesis, tumor angiogenesis, tumor immune escape, drug resistance, and metastasis. In addition exosomes have a role for a cancer biomarker and may become the standard for early detection or surveillance marker for cancer. Finally exosomes have a role in the future as a cancer therapeutic agent.
The incidence of Gastrointestinal Diseases, including Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, is growing at an epidemic rate. The mainstay of present treatment includes high dose steroids and if not effective, the addition of “immune-modulating” medications including biologics that decrease the overall immune system and carry an increased risk for early onset cancer. In many cases, this treatment is not effective and the person has to resort to the removal of part of or their entire colon, altering their life forever. Research in the area of exosomes has clarified that these “non cell vesicles” have a beneficial biologic and physiologic function in immune-regulation and inflammation in the autoimmune process. Although there remains to be seen major studies published in the use of exosomes in specifically Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), much research has been carried out in the animal model for IBD, also in human studies regarding autoimmune diseases. This presentation will review the literature of the beneficial outcomes from the use of exosomes in IBD and autoimmunity and how this knowledge can be applied to the treatment of IBD refractory to other treatment options.
Recent evidence shows that part of the regenerative potential of stem cells are due to exosomes and their potential for healing through cell to cell communication, regulating inflammation and immune response.
Dr. Shapiro and Dr. Knapp will take opposing sides in a discussion of Exosomes vs Stem Cells. Each faculty member will present a short oral argument supporting their side and then take part in an unscripted oral discussion with each other and members of the audience.
Exosomes and their applications represent the newest frontier in clinical medicine. This session will explore the historical discovery of exosomes, how and where they are generated. Early clinical results for treatment of osteoarthritis, pain, hair restoration, COPD, CHF, pulmonary artery hypertension and age related decline will be presented. Future directions for exosome clinical applications will discuss the status of current IRB studies and opportunities for interested clinicians to collaborate to advance the science of exosome treatments.
Cells derived from the postpartum placenta have a set of unique biological properties that promise to expand the scope and utility of allogeneic cell therapies in cancer and immunological disease. Celularity’s IMPACT™ platform uniquely accelerates the clinical development of allogeneic cell therapies, the scalability and affordability of which is a function of a near-limitless supply of eligible donor placentas. In immuno-oncology, placental-drived NK cells (PNK) demonstrate intrinsic cytotoxic activity in tumor cells without alloimmune (GvHD) or autoimmune toxicities. Celularity’s PNK-007 product has demonstrated therapeutic promise and promising safety signals in AML and multiple myeloma.
This lecture may contain a commercial aspect and should not be considered as a component of CME, please do not evaluate as such.
- Chief Scientific Officer, IMAC Regeneration Centers, Miami, FL
- Chairman of the Scientific Committee, American Academy of Stem Cell Physicians
President, BioFirma, LLC
Dr. White is an expert in the field of regenerative medicine with 20 years’ experience working with cardiovascular biology, tissue regeneration and stem cell biology. Dr. White received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Liverpool University, England prior to being hired at Dartmouth College to study the genetics of gamete biology. In 2000, Dr. White was recruited to Harvard University to work with hematopoietic stem cells and immune cell biology under the mentorship of the world-renowned Dr. Laurie Glimcher, where he co-authored several peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. Dr. White went on to receive his Ph.D. degree from the Ansary Stem Cell Institute of Cornell University under the guidance of Dr. Shahin Rafii. Following the completion of this Ph.D. work, Dr. White has spent time in the stem cell laboratory of Dr. Stephen Dalton, whose pioneering work led to the inclusion of c-myc as one of the four factors used by Nobel award winning Dr. Shinya Yamanaka in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Subsequently, Dr. White relocated to the Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute at the University of Miami’s Miller School of Medicine. Dr. White published ground-breaking research in the field of regenerative medicine alongside Dr. Joshua Hare, including a book chapter on the use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (“MSCs”) in Cardiology. In 2015, Dr. White’s work on the regeneration of the heart was featured on the cover of Circulation Research, one of the top peer-reviewed journals in the world for cardiovascular medicine. In 2016, Dr. White was honored with an award for the “Best Manuscript” by the American Heart Association for his work highlighting the role of peripheral nerves in cardiac regeneration. Dr. White has published extensively in the field of stem cell biology, clinical stem cell applications and regenerative medicine.
- Private Internal, Integrative and Regenerative Medicine Practice, Newton, MA
Dr. Kathleen O’Neil-Smith is a magna cum laude graduate of Boston University Medical School. She completed an internship in pathology at Massachusetts General Hospital followed by an internship and residency in internal medicine at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. In 2008, she completed a two-year fellowship in functional medicine through the American Academy of Anti-Aging and Regenerative Medicine, as well as a Stem Cell Fellowship at A4M and a TBI certification at AMMG. She has been on the faculty at Tufts University School of Medicine and Boston University School of Medicine. She competed as a member and later coach, of the United States Women’s National Rowing Team and continues to race competitively every year at The Head of The Charles Regatta in Boston. Dr. O’Neil-Smith is Medical Director at TB12 Sports Center in Foxboro, MA. She is a compassionate, innovative and conscientious physician, committed to excellence, and dedicated to offer the most cutting edge safe therapies to her patients.
- Adjunct Assistant Professor Clinical Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY
- Founding Partner, Cenegenics, New York City
- Member, AMMG Conference Planning Committee
Dr. Shapiro has been a practicing physician for 30 years, specializing in Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease and Age Management Medicine. His career in medicine began in 1988 when he graduated from New York Medical College. An internship and residency then followed at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, after which Dr. Shapiro completed a fellowship at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1994, focusing on Cardiovascular Disease Management, including Congestive Heart Failure and Heart Transplantation. Dr. Shapiro was the recipient of the 10th Annual Alan P. Mintz, M.D. Award for Clinical Excellence in Age Management Medicine, as he has become known nationwide as an expert in age management medicine, and leads one of the most prominent age management practices in the country as president of Cenegenics New York City. Always challenged by the need for innovative medicine, Dr. Shapiro has patented medical devices as well as explored and innovated new medical protocols. He has long been known as one of New York’s foremost cardiologists, specializing in regenerative medicine and improving longevity, including the genomics of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure. Affiliated with New York Presbyterian Hospital and an Adjunct Assistant Clinical Professor in Clinical Medicine at New York Medical College, Dr. Shapiro is active in 13 medical societies, has been a speaker for the Age Management Medicine Group (AMMG) group for many years, and is a long-standing member of the AMMG Conference Planning Committee. Dr. Shapiro was named a 2017 Top Doctor in New York City.
- Founder & President, North Pinellas Anesthesia, Oldsmar, FL
Believing in functional medicine, Dr. Sponaugle approaches healing on an intracellular level using biochemistry and detoxification protocols to optimize mitochondrial function. Raised in Franklin, WV which is a small farming town bordering the Shenandoah National Park, Dr. Sponaugle attended West Virginia University with the funding of government loans and scholarships. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a Degree in Chemistry with additional honors Alpha Epsilon Delta National Chemistry Honor Society; Who’s Who in American Colleges and Universities; and Beta Theta Pi National Merit Scholarship. In addition, Dr. Sponaugle was awarded one of four scholarships, given each year by the state of West Virginia, to exceptional PreMed students for matriculation at the WVU School of Medicine. After receiving his Medical Degree at WVU, he began an Internal Medicine residency at Charleston Area Medical Center with the intent to become a Cardiologist. While performing his Internal Medicine Internship, Dr. Sponaugle became disillusioned with several aspects of Internal Medicine, particularly Oncology and Rheumatology. With a love for Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Intensive Care Medicine, he left his Internal Medicine Residency to seek specialty training in Intensive Care Medicine at the University of Florida.
- Private Practice, Fort Worth, TX
Dr. Paul D. Thompson is a board-certified urologist and a Fellow in the American College of Surgeons. He is a member of the American Medical Association, Missouri Medical Society and American Urology Association. After earning an undergraduate degree from the University of Missouri at Kansas City, he graduated from the University of Missouri at Kansas City Medical School in 1981. Seven years later, he completed a residency in urology at the University of Louisville in Kentucky. In 1988, Dr. Thompson established a private urology practice in Cape Girardeau, Missouri, which he maintained until 2007. He also was a cofounder and board member of the U.S. Medical Development Service Company, designed to serve physicians in lithotripsy, radiation treatment centers and hospitals. At Southeast Missouri Hospital, he was Chief of Surgery for four years as well as Chief of Staff and head of their Credential Committee. Dr. Thompson always believed in a proactive medical approach, but wasn’t sure how to accomplish that until his own health issues led him to experience a new paradigm with age management medicine.
- Medical Director & Chief of Interventional Uroradiology, Sperling Prostate Center, Florida & New York
- Medical Director, Sperling Medical Group, Florida
- Medical Director, Sperling Neurosurgery Associates, Florida
Dan Sperling, M.D., DABR, is a globally recognized leader in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for the detection and diagnosis of a wide range of conditions. He is the Medical Director of the Sperling Prostate Center, Sperling Neurosurgery Associates, and the Sperling Medical Group based in Florida and New York. Dr. Sperling is a radiologist certified by the American Board of Radiology, and licensed in New York, New Jersey, California, Massachusetts and Florida. He is the leading pioneer in image-guided Focal Laser Ablation (FLA) for targeted prostate cancer treatment. He has also adapted this treatment for an innovative approach to correcting urinary problems caused by BPH. Dr. Sperling is a contributing author on more than 25 peer-reviewed MRI studies. He served as a faculty member at NYU/Langone Medical Center’s annual course, “Advances in Prostate Imaging and Ablative Treatment of Prostate Cancer.” He is the co-author, along with other prostate cancer specialists and men’s health experts, of the new patient book, Redefining Prostate Cancer.
- Staff, Department of Surgery, North Broward Medical Center, Pompano Beach, FL
- Board of Directors & Staff, Park Creek Surgery Center, Coconut Creek, FL
- Staff, Al Zahra Hospital, Al Barsha, Dubai, U.A.E.
Jeffrey N. Weiss, M.D., is the former Chief of Retinal Surgery at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston, Faculty member of Harvard Medical School, and Visiting Scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is the author of more than 100 publications, including 10 books, and holds more than 20 U.S. and foreign patents. Dr. Weiss performed the first retinal stem cell surgery in 2010 and is the Principal Investigator of The Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Studies I/II, the largest retinal and optic nerve stem cell studies in the world, The Neurologic Stem Cell Treatment Study, The Stem Cell Spinal Cord Injury Exoskeleton and Virtual Reality Treatment Study, and The Alzheimer’s, Cognitive Impairment and Autism Treatment Study.
- Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, FL
- Founder, Institute for Hormonal Balance
- Member, AMMG Conference Planning Committee
Dr. Edwin Lee is an endocrinologist, author and international speaker. Dr. Lee founded the Institute for Hormonal Balance, Orlando, FL in 2008, is board certified in Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, and has completed special training in Regenerative and Functional Medicine. Currently, he is the assistant professor of Internal Medicine at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine. In addition to writing his award winning books, “Your Amazing Heart,” “Your Awesome Brain,” “Feel Good Look Younger: Reversing Tiredness Through Hormonal Balance,” and “Your Best Investment: Secrets to a Healthy Body and Mind,” Dr. Lee has published many articles on internal medicine and endocrinology. He was also an author in the fourth edition of Textbook of Critical Care. His passion is healthy living and he practices what he preaches. He enjoys participating in open water swimming, cycling, hiking and Aquabike competition. Dr. Edwin Lee resides in Orlando, FL with his wife and 2 teenage boys.
- Endocrine Nurse Practitioner, Institute for Hormonal Balance, Orlando, FL
- Medical Director, Ward-Murray HealthCare Consulting, Groton, CT
Rebecca Murray is a board-certified Family Nurse Practitioner who specializes in Functional Medicine and Endocrinology. After graduating from Columbia University, she spent the first 12 years of her career in Critical Care Medicine, overseeing the care of patients with debilitating medical conditions that most often could have been prevented. In 2001, she joined and eventually became the Medical Director for CT Holistic & Integrative Medicine in Groton, CT, where she specialized in the prevention and treatment of Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes, Autoimmune Diseases, and Risk Reduction of Hormonally-Related cancers. In 2016, she joined Dr. Edwin Lee, a renowned Functional Medicine Endocrinologist, at the Institute for Hormonal Balance in Orlando, FL, where she focuses her practice as an Endocrine Nurse Practitioner on the optimization of hormones across the lifespan, including hormonal imbalances that contribute to infertility, early pregnancy loss, and premature births. She follows her passion for sharing the “constantly evolving” knowledge of functional medicine by lecturing both nationally and internationally on the topics of Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, Obesity, Adrenal and Thyroid Dysfunction, and Hormonal Imbalances that decrease one’s quality of life.
- CEO, CMO, Better Life Carolinas, Charleston, SC
Dr. Michale “Mickey” Barber offers an integrative approach to age management medicine while providing the patient with an assessment of hormonal balance and overall health and disease risk. Her philosophy for successful aging includes maintaining energy, health, and sexual vigor through shared responsibility of the patient-doctor team. Dr. Barber not only teaches her patients about hormonal balance but practices such balance herself. She has competed in Masters level figure competitions at the age of 48 placing second and ten years later competing to a standing ovation. Given a strong family history of heart disease and cancer, she takes her health very seriously and is a living example of the benefits of the program. Dr. Barber has been CEO/CMO of Better Life Carolinas for three years. Previously, Dr. Barber was CEO/CMO of Cenegenics Carolinas for 12 years. She graduated from The College of Charleston, completed medical school at The Medical University of South Carolina, completed her residency at Tulane University, and finished her fellowship at Harvard. She also was an assistant professor at Tulane University. During her training and career in academic medicine, she received several awards for clinical performance and teaching skills. Throughout her academic and private practice, she passionately pursued her interest in health, nutrition, exercise, and mind-body medicine. Further studies and certification in Age Management Medicine allow her to combine her unique interests and training to empower her patients to live vigorous, healthy lives at any age. In November 2012, Dr. Barber was awarded the top honor in her field and presented with the Alan P. Mintz Award for Clinical Excellence in Age Management Medicine. She has been featured on television across the country and in publications including The Charleston Mercury, Shape Magazine, The Senior Sun, The Charleston City Paper, The Charleston Regional Business Journal, The Charlotte Business Journal, Vogue, and Harpers Bazaar. She is a Maria Shriver “Architect for Change.” Dr. Barber is a sought after lecturer on age management and hormone replacement. Dr. Mickey and her husband reside in Isle of Palms and share a blended family of five wonderful children and t……………..
- Founder, Chairman/CEO, Longevity Bioimaging/Landmark Hospitals, Naples, FL
Dr. William Kapp received his B.S. in Biochemistry from the University of Georgia and his M.S. in Immunology and M.D. at the Medical College of Georgia, where he graduated with honors and was inducted into Alpha Omega Alpha, the medical honor society. He attended the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas for residency in Orthopaedic Surgery and completed his specialty training in 1994. Dr. Kapp is a board-certified orthopaedic surgeon and a Fellow in the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, licensed to practice in Illinois, Missouri, Texas and Georgia. He has served on the Board of Directors of the Missouri Orthopaedic Association and has been chair of the Legislative Affairs Committee. Until 2005, he served as flight surgeon in the US Air Force Reserves with the rank of Major. Dr. Kapp served as managing partner and leader for Physicians Alliance Surgery Center in Cape Girardeau and was instrumental in its design, development, and certification. He served as its Founding President and Medical Director from 2000 – 2003 and on its Medical Board from 2000 − 2011. Physicians Alliance is a multi-specialty outpatient surgical center with four operating suites and over 30 staff members. In 2011, St. Francis Medical Center acquired partial interest in Physicians Alliance. Dr. Kapp also served 15 years as managing partner for Orthopaedic Associates of SE Missouri, the region’s only orthopaedic center. Orthopaedic Associates is a 9-physican practice with over 70 employees. Under his direction, the group grew from five physicians and two offices to nine physicians and five satellite locations. Revenue grew over 300% under his leadership. Dr. Kapp had a vision to establish regional referral centers for medically complex patients requiring hospital-based post-acute care. Landmark Hospitals has grown into seven regional referral centers. Under his leadership, Landmark has implemented new information technologies that allow clinicians to easily document patient encounters and then follow and manage the patient upon discharge from our critical care hospitals across all post-acute settings, allowing for better outcomes and a seamless continuum of care. Dr. Kapp is a founding advisory board member of Missouri Physicians Mutual. MPM was founded in the late 1990’s as a Missouri-based 383 company to provide affordable medical malpractice insurance to a troubled market. MPM was able to grow from 10 physicians at its inception to well over 2,000, becoming the largest insurer in the state for physician medical malpractice insurance.
- Adjunct Associate Professor of Pathology, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY
- Founder and Executive Chairman, MYOS Corporation, Cedar Knolls, NJ
- Co-Founder and Vice-Chairman, Human Longevity, Inc., San Diego, CA
- Founder and Chairman, Celgene Cellular Therapeutics, Summit, NJ
Dr. Hariri has worked for the past 20 years to transform the field of biomedicine where his discoveries and contributions to the study of stem cells and tissue engineering have sparked the development of nearly all existing stem cell therapies. He is an accomplished surgeon, biomedical scientist, and serial entrepreneur in two technology sectors, biomedicine and aerospace. He is the Chairman, Founder, and Chief Executive Officer of Celularity, Inc., one of the world’s leading human cellular therapeutics companies. Dr. Hariri was the founder and CEO of Anthrogenesis Corporation, and after its acquisition by Celgene Corporation, served as CEO of Celgene Cellular Therapeutics. Dr. Hariri also co-founded the genomic-based health intelligence company, Human Longevity, Inc. Dr. Hariri pioneered the use of stem cells to treat a range of life-threatening human diseases, and continues today to make transformative contributions in the fields of immuno-oncology and cell therapeutics along with tissue engineering and functional regeneration. He is widely acknowledged for his discovery of pluripotent stem cells derived from the human placenta, and as a member of the team that discovered the physiological activities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). He holds over 150 issued and pending patents for discoveries including placenta-derived stem cells, which Nature recognized as one of the ten most important patent estates in the field. He has authored over 150 published chapters, articles, and abstracts.
Discounted Bundle: Purchase the full Exosomes: The Next Generation of Biologic Medicine of courses + bonus panel discussions not available with individual course purchases.
- Explain the evidence-based science behind the use of Exosomes as an adjunct to an Age Management Medicine practice in the areas of biomarkers, ways of treating disease and use of targeted delivery vehicles for therapeutic molecules.
- Learn essential scientific information for the use of Exosomes in Age Management Medicine and how to clinically apply this knowledge to individualized treatment plans to improve outcomes.
- Understand how Exosomes can be applied clinically to various areas such as cardiac health, cancer, retinal and optic nerve conditions and gastrointestinal diseases.